Author Topic: Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools  (Read 1790 times)

Mesozoic Mister Nigel

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Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools
« on: June 19, 2011, 08:59:38 pm »
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SPECIALTIES, SAUSAGES, AND LARD

Prime steam lard. This type of lard is made from killing and cutting
fats. It is rendered in a closed tank under steam pressure of from 30 to 50
pounds. The temperature at which the lard is rendered is about 285°F.
Most of the lard on the market falls under this classification.

Neutral lard. Neutral lard is rendered at a very low temperature of
about 120°F. It is made entirely from leaf fat. It is used almost entirely
in the manufacture of oleomargarine.

Dry rendered lard. This is essentially a kettle rendered lard except that
a closed container is used and usually under reduced pressure. This method
of making lard gives a product which has a fine flavor and excellent keep-
ing quality.

The texture in lard varies with the way in which it is cooled. Smooth
lard is chilled rapidly by rotating a refrigerated drum in melted lard.
Grainy lard is cooled slowly in what is called a "settling tank,''' and is
allowed to chill in the container.

Food Value of Lard

Energy value. Lard is valued as a source of energy. Being 100 per cent
fat, it furnishes more than 4,000 calories per pound, therefore, even a
small amount of lard used in making a food product increases the energy
value of that product.

Digestibility. Lard is easily digested and is almost completely utilized
by the body. Lard is 97 per cent digestible, which is the same as butter.

Essential unsaturated fatty acids. Recent investigations have revealed
that lard possesses nutritional value heretofore unrecognized. It has been
found to contain essential unsaturated fatty acids. A deficiency of these
unsaturated fatty acids in the diet results in retarded growth and certain
skin conditions. Lard has been found to be superior to hydrogenated fats
in this respect.

Lard, therefore, is valuable in the diet because it is:

1. An excellent source of energy.

2. Easily digested

3. Almost completely utilized

4. A rich source of essential fatty acids

Culinary Uses of Lard

Lard has many uses as a cookery fat. It has an advantage over many other
fats in that it has a wide plastic range, which simply means that lard is
pliable and can be worked over a wide range of temperatures. It may be
removed from the refrigerator and used immediately as it is not brittle.

Deep fat frying. The smoking point of good lard is above 380° F.,
although this will vary with the kind of lard, the number of times it has
been used, and the care it has received. No food needs a higher temperature
than 380° F., and many can be fried at a much lower temperature. While
its smoking point is a little lower than that of some other fats used in deep
fat frying, lard will show less change from time to time while being used,
especially if care is taken not to overheat it.

Overheating causes the formation of acrolein which has an irritating
effect on the eyes and nose and throat. The frying life of the fat also is
shortened. When fat is heated to the smoking point, decomposition is tak-
ing place, therefore, the smoking temperature should never be used as an
indication that the fat is hot enough for frying. The best way to test the
temperature of the fat is a thermometer. Lacking a deep fat thermometer,
use the bread cube test: Drop a one-inch cube of bread in hot lard. Fat at
350° F., will brown bread cube in not less than one minute; at 360° F..
will brown in one minute; and 370° F., in about 40 seconds.

After each use, lard should be strained through cheesecloth to remove
any food particles. To remove very fine particles, the lard should be
clarified by putting slices of raw potato into the kettle of cold lard and
heating gradually until the potato is well browned, and then straining.
When not in use the lard should be covered and stored in a cool place.

Frying. Lard is used for frying foods such as eggs, potatoes, and other
foods which are cooked in a small amount of fat.

Pastry. Lard has been proved by experience and by experiment to have
a greater shortening value than any of the plastic fats. Since the value of
a fat for pastry making is measured in terms of its shortening power, lard
is widely used in pies and other pastries. Lard not only produces a tender,
but a flaky crust as well. For this reason it is valued in pastry making.

Cakes. Recent studies on the use of lard in cake making have demon-
strated that white cakes of fine texture and flavor can be made with lard by
modifying the method of mixing the cake. Lard cakes have excellent keeping
qualities, remaining moist for several days.

Modified method for mixing lard cakes. In the modified method the pro-
cedure is: (1) Cream the lard and sugar with a little milk (the addition of
the milk makes creaming easier), reserving one- fourth of the sugar to beat
with the egg whites; (2) stir egg yolks into rest of the milk (this varies from
the usual practice of adding the eggs to the creamed sugar and lard) ; (3)
beat egg whites until stiff and dry and add the remaining one-fourth of sugar
and beat until the sugar just disappears: If) sift the salt (lard contains no
salt as does butter) , flour, and baking powder together three times; I 5) add
part of flour first, then milk and flour alternately in usual way; (6) fold
in egg whites carefully.

Other uses for lard. Lard may be used as the shortening in main
other baked products. Among these are: Biscuits, hot breads, bread, cookies,
and griddle cakes.

Excerpted from "Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools", 1940, by the National Live Stock and Meat Board. Dept. of Home Economics.
http://www.archive.org/details/tenlessonsonmeat00natirich
“I’m guessing it was January 2007, a meeting in Bethesda, we got a bag of bees and just started smashing them on the desk,” Charles Wick said. “It was very complicated.”


Don Coyote

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Re: Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools
« Reply #1 on: June 19, 2011, 09:14:26 pm »
Why does that make me hungry?
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Mesozoic Mister Nigel

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Re: Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools
« Reply #2 on: June 19, 2011, 09:34:43 pm »
Because food cooked with lard is FUCKING DELICIOUS?
“I’m guessing it was January 2007, a meeting in Bethesda, we got a bag of bees and just started smashing them on the desk,” Charles Wick said. “It was very complicated.”


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Re: Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools
« Reply #3 on: June 19, 2011, 10:21:12 pm »
Ah I was hunting around  (not very hard) for something like this since you said you cook a lot with bacon fat. Thanks.
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Mesozoic Mister Nigel

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Re: Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools
« Reply #4 on: June 19, 2011, 10:25:56 pm »
:thanks:
“I’m guessing it was January 2007, a meeting in Bethesda, we got a bag of bees and just started smashing them on the desk,” Charles Wick said. “It was very complicated.”


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Re: Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools
« Reply #5 on: June 20, 2011, 05:04:52 am »
Om-a-nom-nom-nom. This is awesome. Must send to girlfriend. Thanks, Nigel. :)
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Re: Ten Lessons On Meat For Use In Schools
« Reply #6 on: June 20, 2011, 11:43:47 pm »
Interesting stuff!
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